Excerpt from Chapter 8 – “THE JEWS OF MEDINA”

Published March 22, 2018

The question is: Would the Jews have agreed to these terms? It
seems doubtful. First, these terms are incongruous with the
Preamble and certain other terms noted earlier, which depict the
Jews as third parties. Second, the Jews of Medina had no quarrel
with the Quraysh and may not therefore have agreed to treat them
as a common enemy. Third, it does not appeal to reason that the
Jews would acknowledge Muhammad as “the Apostle of God,”
even for purposes only of the treaty. Fourth, it also seems
doubtful that the Jews would accept the Prophet as arbiter of
disputes, considering that if there were any such disagreements,
Muhammad would be an interested party.

If the above terms are unlikely to have been accepted by the
Jews, could it even be that no such treaty was ever signed by
them? Can the possibility be ruled out that Muslim scholars, who
have felt under pressure to explain the treatment extended to the
Jews of Medina, may have invented the treaty at a later stage or
may have twisted the document that was essentially only amongst
the believers to also include the Jews as a party, in order to create
some justification for the harsh treatment given to them?